Study of the factors of free divers` blood oxygenation

The problem of reserve possibilities of the organism is closely connected with the problem of adaptation, which reveals itself through mobilization of functional reserves. Under the influence of systematic trainings the ability to mobilization of reserve possibilities of the athlete’s organism in significant degree is defined by the amount and character of training loads, as a result a dominant morpho- functional system shapes.
In a new intensively developing sport free diving the investigation has just begun. Swimming with a delayed respiration on the maximal possible distance in length and depth presents high demands to all the systems of a free diver’s organism.
The degree of activation of biomechanical processes depends on the terms of fulfillment of muscular work, there is a total deficit of oxygen in this sport, which defines the character of factor action, regulating metabolism. As of many authors
(Volkov N. I. and others), anaerobic reactions exist on initial stage of any muscular activity. The participation of a creatinphosphorkinetic system and glycol sis
in terms of diving with a delayed respiration is not studied, but the processes of aerobic energy provision are limited with the velocity deployment, connected with
inert mechanisms of oxygen delivery and impossibility to restore its deficiency.
At a cellular level, under the terms of sufficient amount of adenosin triphosphoric acid, the regulator of respiration velocity is an accessibility of the oxygen.
Available literary data show that when performing muscular work the respiration velocity depends on:
a) the total store of myoglobin in the muscles and the amount of deposited oxygen in them,
b) the efficiency of circulatory provision of muscles,
c) the heart capacity,
d) the oxygen capacity of blood, depending of total amount of hemoglobin
in blood and its relationship with oxygen,
e) Artery – venous difference on oxygen
At the first stage of research the aim is to study blood capacity so we defined the level of saturation of artery blood with the oxygen by the pulsexymeter method with the help of pulsexymeter ONYX – 9500 of the firm NONIN. As a whole it was held 85 measurements among 25 people, there were 12 women, 13 men, aged 17 – 42 years, with different level of qualification – 8 beginning free divers, 11 trained free divers, 6 high level trained athletes, among them there was one record holder of the world and Europe and 5 record holders and champions, prizewinners of Russia in free diving and under water swimming.


 

At first the initial meanings of hemoglobin saturation level were measured,
then after holding a standard limbering up and after diving 50 meters under water. Besides, trained free divers swam the maximal possible distance with a delay of breathing.
At analysis the received results it was revealed a trend of more expressing reduction of the saturation level among high trained free divers (61 – 78 %) to compare with low level trained athletes (89 – 95 %). Probably, the improvement of inwardly cellular oxidation processes occurs with the first group – the increasing of myoglobin amount and the activity of fermentative systems in fighting the organism against hypoxemia and hypocapnia, that allows to maintain a high capacity of the organism even in the condition of significant reduction of saturation artery blood with oxygen.
That concerns low level trained athletes with a small delayed respiration and a small reduction of the oxygenation level of blood at the moment of finishing the work, it can show an insufficient compensatory mechanisms or insufficient activity of oxygen absorption.
In the opinion of Bernstain E. A., the development of hypoxic hypoxia can be shown as consisting of two phases: “areactive” and “reactive” hypoxemia. The main factor, defining an areactivity of the first stage is ability of ox hemoglobin to keep the strain of the oxygen in blood at a high level even in conditions of significant hypoxic hypoxia and, thus, it limits the fall of tissue strain of oxygen. The second phase begins when possibilities of ox hemoglobin cannot restrain the further reduction of tissue oxygen strain. As a result the tissue provision with oxygen is broken and a stimulus to mobilization of functional reserves appears.
Ox hemoglobin can obtain a dominate part and in a considerable extend it can define the strain of oxygen in tissue by changing the delivery of oxygen to the tissue at the result of alteration a narrow dissociation. Perhaps it can explain minimal alteration in saturation of artery blood with oxygen at the distances of 50, 75 and 100 meters among highly trained free divers (the world record holders have – 100, 96 and 90 % accordingly) and a quick reduction of blood oxygenation at the distance of 125 meters (71 %), when happens pH shift to an acid side in consequence of lactic acid accumulation and carbon dioxide (see diagram 2). As the result the relationship of ox hemoglobin to oxygen reduces that relieves the return of oxygen to tissue. One more interesting trend is defined among highly trained free divers.
When performing the test, swimming under the water of 50 meters with a delayed respiration it was noted the increasing of initial values of blood oxygenation (from
98 to 100 %). It can be explained by the inaccuracy of the device, though this fact
was fixed 6 times.
However it is possible to expect a phenomenon of a quick mobilization of reserved mechanisms of oxygen insufficiency: the output of deposited blood in to
the blood vessels, (including by the opinion. L. Karpmana, it is reserved basal volume of blood in the heart), and also the output of definite volume of plasma out of the vascular riverbed. It happens as a result of an increase of arterial pressure and osmotic pressure in muscular. The increase of blood hemoconcentration takes place.
We have considered the cost of blood oxygenation of one meter of swimming under the water and found out the trend to reduction of the cost with the increase of training.
The exception forms the group of low trained free divers, who had small reduction of the oxygen strain. Probably, unlike highly trained athletes, who spent their energetic resources economically, little skilled athletes refused fast from the work at high level of blood oxygenation as a result of high speed of accumulation of the anaerobic exchange products.
  The factors of the saturation level turned out interesting after finishing of the work and the first breath. It lasted the reduction of blood saturation with oxygen among 10 athletes. Moreover, the higher was qualification the more was the reduction (at 2 – 5 % among middle trained, at 7 – 10 trained free drivers (see diagram 1). The most significant changes occurred after a delayed respiration at a full exhalation in a static apoapsis with A. M., a world champion of Russia in free diving – at 11%, and with N. M., a world record holder – at 20% (see diagram 2).


 

The possible explanation of this factor is a deceleration of velocity of blood circulation as a result of increasing blood viscosity (the increasing of hematocrit) and reduction of frequency of warmhearted reductions. Besides, it is possible a redistribution of blood circulation from peripheries towards the organs the most important for providing life activity of the body (cerebrum and heart) at the moment.
Thus, for breathing homeostars at the most important stages it is typical not so stable constancy as a wide variety of the main oxygen parameters. By this way, a functional “flexibility” and an adaptability of the systems are provided, taking part in provision of the cells with the oxygen under the changing situations in internal and external ambience of the organism. 

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